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Strenghts for a Balanced Learning System for Officers Well Prepared for Future Challenges
(Enrico Spinello and Marina Marchisio)

In officers’ education and training it is important to have a balanced learning system in order to offer the appropriate tool kit for learners. Future leaders deserve to receive a multidisciplinary academic education, integrated with a deep military knowledge, a specialised professional training and physical preparation. The profession of officer strongly requires a specific preparation because officers are Commanders of soldiers, managers of precious resources such as equipment and weapon systems and professionals in the management of State violence during a crisis. For all these reasons, the IT-Army Education and Training Command and School of Applied Military Studies of Turin together with the University of Turin designed and implemented a specific path of education. It starts with a Bachelor and Master Degrees in Strategic Sciences which provide a solid scientific knowledge together with geopolitics, legal studies, humanities and social sciences. The theory comes with practical training in the military disciplines as well as in the academic field, through group working, simulations, and open discussions. The use of new technologies like Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) together with new methodologies leads and helps learners to be able to build knowledge and develop skills and competencies. In order to have open-minded and smart officers, internationalization is a key word and the presence of civilian students in the same class is considered as an added value. The entire cycle of studies is to be intended in a lifelong learning perspective that is able to provide highly specialised know-hows in several fields. This education system prepares students for global changes and it is currently used in our campus because both Institutes consider it as a good path forward for the future. Students' feedback is extremely positive and this encourages to continue with it.

Qu'est-ce qu'une secte? Ou qu'est-ce qu'elle n'est pas?
(French only)
(Odette Bélanger)

This text relates the events surrounding the designation of aumism as a sect in France. The author stresses the seriousness of the consequences that such a designation may have.

Formation intellectuelle des jeunes officiers : rôles des langues étrangères et de la diversité culturelle
(French only)
(Mohamed Adel Kallala and Samir LaabidiNote de bas de page)

The peoples use their languages respectively to have a grip on reality and as they do not categorize it in the same way, they do not reach intercomprehension and believe in the supremacy of their culture, which results even in a civilizational shock (cf. Samuel Huntington). To cushion this shock and to fight against egocentrism with its harmful consequences, particularly in the military environment, it would be more appropriate to promote the teaching/learning of foreign languages (FL) and diverse cultures.

Thus, the reflection on the linguistic and socio-cultural stakes of the teaching of (FL) to young officers and the consideration of the experience of the Tunisian military institutions in this field, led us, in this contribution, to make some suggestions likely to build the intellectual training of young officers on a linguistic-cultural expansion.

Military Design in the Canadian Context
(Robert Lummack)

The present text is a short reflection upon Canada’s experience with military design. After highlighting a few notable elements related to this experience, it argues that Canada should be proactive in developing versions of military design which are appropriate to the Canadian context of Canada as a middle power while appreciating the insight of key allies and the broader global design movement. It further argues that an operational design model would be beneficial in and of itself but would also need to be sufficiently connected to other elements of national power in the form of a Whole of Government design process, as complex security problems often require more than a military solution.

A Systems Approach to Recruiting and Training CAF Members: Designing an Optimized Model
(LCol Kyle Solomon)

The challenge of producing a greater number of trained military personnel than veterans has long been recognized as a systemic problem. The use of systems thinking and design provides a useful methodology to frame the problem, understand the environment, and develop possible solutions that could help break down the silos that have prevented significant progress on this issue. Examining how to optimize the process from recruitment to operational functional point orients the problem and defines the system whereby an individual is recruited into the Canadian Armed Forces, undergoes basic military training, and then completes their Military Occupation Structure Identification specific training. Potential solutions to our problem statement can largely be categorized as changes to function, structure, process, or tools. Synchronizing the recruiting to operational functional point system has been a challenge for the Canadian Armed Forces for many years. The good news is that we control almost all of the means to fix this problem. The bad news is that many of the problems are self-imposed and that culture change is almost as urgently required as process change if there is any hope of improving the system.

Teachers, Leave Them Kids Alone: Debating Two Approaches for Design Education in Military Organizations
(Ben Zweibelson, Aaron P. Jackson and Simon Bernard)

This article functions as an informed debate between two experienced military practitioners, scholars and leading design proponents as to when military design should be introduced within Professional Military Education (PME). After an introduction by Bernard, an experienced Canadian officer, Zweibelson first argues that design should be taught at junior levels which would engender important benefits for the institution. Jackson then counter-argues that design is better served being taught at mid-career levels so as to maximize the impact design can have. After initial arguments, each author provides a rebuttal. What the conversation reveals beyond that both authors share an earnest conviction for design and its potentialities to positively impact complex military challenges is that there are merits to each approach. This international discussion is indeed timely as militaries, including the CAF, reflect upon how best to incorporate design methodologies into their national PME systems.

Designing a Way to Improve Outcomes
(Mithula Naik)

This article is a personal reflection about design philosophy and action based upon a designer’s experience collaborating and innovating on several significant projects. First, it details experience and insights gained working to bring about a helmet specifically designed for female motorcycle riders, bringing increased safety for this population and filling a gap in the market. Secondly, a strategic design experience at Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada is detailed and finally, new opportunities at Canadian Digital Services (CDS) are discussed. Key parts of the projects are explained including the design research methodology employed and project objectives, revealing key insights particularly with regard to the values of empathy and the human within the Design process. Ultimately, in illuminating successful design experiences, the article argues that that strategic design has the ability to innovate and promote change within large organizations for successful outcomes keeping the client in mind.

The Urgency is in the Miror
(Fodé Beaudet)

What is urgent when the path forward is unclear amidst complex challenges? The paper argues for providing legitimacy to processes where people co-design how they will intervene to adapt for the future, starting now. This implies to support design approaches that engage people who are affected by change, going beyond mere consultation or feedback to extract information. Rather, the paper encourages a participatory approach from framing a theory of change as well as co-designing with others through the process of analysis, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of interventions. The author shares a personal journey and experiences that challenged his mental model, and outlines practical implications for participatory approaches.

We Think Spatially: The Urgency of Meaningful Maps
(Major Mathieu Primeau)

With the active generation increasingly thinking visually, creating meaningful maps is paramount to the military operational art, defined as the arrangement of tactical actions in space, time and purpose in the pursuit of strategic objectives. The challenge lies in understanding how meaning is created and shared, not just within our own organization, in our culture, with our dominant mental models, but also from the perspectives of whole-of-government efforts, our coalition partners, and our rivals. This article refreshes the reader on the theory of social systems, and proposes an approach to creating such meaningful maps, whether as a sketch on a whiteboard, a Powerpoint slide, or the product of professional GIS work.

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